World Heritage in Vietnam has been recognized by UNESCO with all three types: world natural heritage, world cultural heritage and world mixed cultural and natural heritage.
The criteria of heritage include criteria of cultural heritage (including i, ii, iii, iv, v, vi) and natural heritage (vii, viii, ix, x). Vietnam currently has 8 world heritage sites recognized by UNESCO. 5 of them are cultural heritage, 2 are natural heritage and 1 are mixed heritage.
UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Vietnam
1. The central relic of Thang Long Imperial Citadel (Hanoi City)
Date: XIth century
Thang Long Imperial Citadel was built in the 11th century under the Ly Dynasty in Vietnam, marking the independence of Dai Viet. Built on the ruins of a Chinese fortress in the 7th century, it was the political and power center of Dai Viet for 13 centuries. Today, the Imperial Citadel and the 18 Hoang Dieu archaeological site reflect the unique Southeast Asian culture in the Red River Delta, the gateway to trade between ancient China and the ancient Kingdom of Champa.
2. Hoi An Ancient Town (Quang Nam Province)
Date: XV-XIX centuries
Hoi An Ancient Town is an outstanding example of a trading port of Southeast Asia in the 15th to 19th centuries. Hoi An’s architecture and roads reflect the influences of local and foreign cultures that make this heritage unique.
3. Complex of Hue Monuments (Thua Thien Hue Province)
Date: XIX-XX centuries
As the capital of a unified Vietnam in 1802, Hue was not only a political center but also a cultural and religious center under the Nguyen Dynasty until 1945. The Perfume River flows through the citadel, The palace and inner city bring to the citadel a wonderful natural landscape.
4. Ho Dynasty citadel (Thanh Hoa province)
Date: XIV century
The Ho Dynasty citadel built in the 14th century based on the principles of feng shui is a testament to the prosperity of Confucianism in the 14th century in Vietnam as well as in East Asia. Based on feng shui, the Ho Dynasty citadel is located where there is a beautiful landscape intersecting between the mountains and the plains along the Ma and Buoi rivers. The Citadel of the Ho Dynasty is a prominent representative of a new style of the Southeast Asian capital.
5. My Son Sanctuary (Quang Nam Province)
Date: IV – XIII centuries
Between the fourth and thirteenth centuries, a unique culture rooted in the Hindu culture arose in the coastal waters of present-day Vietnam. This is shown through the remnants of a temple-tower complex located in the ancient capital of the ancient kingdom of Champa.
6. Trang An Scenic Landscape Complex (Ninh Binh Province)
This is a mixed heritage (both cultural and natural)
Located in the southern part of the Red River Basin, Trang An Scenic Landscape Complex is a landscape complex consisting of limestone mountains with karst terrain interspersed with valleys and steep cliffs. The discoveries have shown that this place appeared archaeological remains of humans more than 30,000 years ago. The complex also includes pagodas, temples, rice fields and small villages.
The two remaining world heritages of Vietnam are Natural Heritage recognized by UNESCO: Ha Long Bay (Quang Ninh) and Phong Nha – Ke Bang National Park (Quang Binh).
What is the documentary heritage of Vietnam recognized as a World Documentary Heritage?