The heritage includes nine gardens in many provinces. They exemplify the variety of Persian garden designs that have evolved and adapted to different climates while preserving principles that date back to the era of Cyrus the Great, 6th century. B.C. Always divided into four zones, where water plays an important role both for irrigation and decoration, the Persian garden was conceived to symbolize Eden and the four Zoroastrian elements of sky, earth, water and plants. These gardens, dating from various periods since the 6th century BC, also feature buildings, pavilions and walls, as well as an elaborate irrigation system. They have influenced the art of garden design as far as India and Spain.
Engraving date: 2011
Property : 716.35 ha
Buffer zone: 9,740.02 ha
Outstanding global value
The Persian Garden consists of a set of nine gardens, selected from different regions of Iran, clearly representing the diverse forms this designed garden has taken over the centuries and over the centuries. different climatic conditions. They reflect the versatility of the Chahar Bagh, or original principle, of the Persian Garden, which has remained unchanged for more than two millennia since its first mature manifestation was found in the garden. part of the Palace complex of Cyrus the Great, in Pasargadae. Natural elements combine with man-made components in the Persian Garden to create a unique artistic achievement that reflects artistic ideals, philosophical, symbolic and religious concepts. The Persian Garden realizes the concept of Eden or Paradise on Earth.
The impeccable design of the Persian Garden, coupled with its ability to cope with extreme climatic conditions, is the initial result of the intelligent and inspiring application of various fields of knowledge, for example. such as technology, water management and engineering, architecture, botany and agriculture. The concept of the Persian Garden permeates Iranian life and its artistic manifestations: references to the garden can be found in literature, poetry, music, calligraphy and design. carpet. These, in turn, have also inspired the arrangement of gardens. Attributes of Outstanding Universal Value are the layout of the garden represented by Chahar Bagh’s specific adaptation in each component and articulated in kharts or vegetation/flowers; water supply system, water management and circulation from source to orchard, including all technological and decorative elements that allow water to be used for functional and aesthetic needs; the arrangement of trees and plants in the garden that contributes to its specific microclimate and character; architectural components, including buildings but not limited to these, that integrate the use of terrain and vegetation to create unique man-made environments; The association with other art forms, in exchange, has been influenced by the Persian Garden and, in turn, has contributed to certain visual features and sound effects in the garden. . architectural components, including buildings but not limited to these, that integrate the use of terrain and vegetation to create unique man-made environments; The association with other art forms, in exchange, has been influenced by the Persian Garden and, in turn, has contributed to certain visual features and sound effects in the garden. . architectural components, including buildings but not limited to these, that integrate the use of terrain and vegetation to create unique man-made environments; the association with other art forms, in exchange, has been influenced by the Persian Garden and, in turn, has contributed to certain visual features and sound effects in the garden .
Criterion (i): The Persian Garden is a masterpiece of human genius. The design of the Persian Garden, based on right angles and geometric proportions, is often divided into four sections known as the Chahar Bagh (Four Gardens). The creation of the Persian Garden was made possible thanks to intelligent and innovative engineering solutions and sophisticated water management systems, as well as the appropriate choice of flora and its position in the layout. garden. Indeed, the Persian Garden is associated with the idea of an earthly Paradise, forming a stark contrast to its desert setting.
Criterion (ii): The Persian Garden represents an important humanistic value exchange, which is the main reference for the development of garden design in West Asia, Arab countries and even Europe . The geometry and symmetry of the architecture, along with the complex water management system, seem to have influenced the design of all these gardens. The word Paradise entered European languages from the Persian root “Pardis”, which is the name of a beautiful garden enclosed behind walls.
Criterion (iii): The Persian Garden is an exceptional and even unique testimony to the cultural traditions that have developed in Iran and the Middle East for about two and a half millennia. Throughout its development, the Persian Garden has played a role in various social and cultural aspects of society, becoming a central feature in private residences, palaces and buildings. public houses, as well as in populations associated with religious or charitable institutions, such as mausoleums, layout parks, palace gardens, Meidans, etc.
Criterion (iv): The Persian Garden is an outstanding example of a garden design achieved using natural and human elements, while integrating the important achievements of Persian culture into a material and symbolic artistic expression in harmony with nature. Indeed, the Persian Garden has become the prototype for the geometrically designed garden layout, popular around the world.
Criterion (vi): The Persian Garden is directly associated with cultural developments of Outstanding Universal Value. These include literary and poetic works by Sa’di, Hafez and Ferdowsi. The Persian Garden is also the main inspiration for Persian carpets and textile design, miniature painting, music, architectural ornaments, etc. one of the four natural elements (earth, sky, water and plants). Chahar Bagh is a reflection of the mythical perception of nature and cosmic order in the eyes of the ancient Iranian peoples.
The Persian Garden includes a sufficient number of gardens from all over Iran and each garden contains just the right elements to represent the series’ Outstanding Universal Value. The component gardens are in good condition and well maintained.
The Persian Garden, through its components, has evolved with the development of Persian society, while adhering to its original geometric pattern, the Chahar Bagh. Pasargadae and Bagh-e Abas Abad can be considered fossil landscapes while the remaining seven gardens play an active role in their material and social context.
Protection and management requirements
Each garden is registered on the National Heritage List and is therefore protected under Iranian law. The provisions of protection established for the gardens and their ‘buffer zone’, as defined under current Iranian law, are also included in the Master Plan, approved by the High Council on Architecture. architecture and urban planning, also included. head of the Iran Cultural Heritage, Crafts and Tourism Organization (ICHHTO).
The existence of the National ICHHTO Facility for the Persian Garden ensures that the management framework is one for the entire chain, facilitating coordination and harmonization of strategies and goals. A management plan that includes common goals for all of the chain’s component gardens and a program of increased publicity and presentation has been developed.
Persia Garden Map
Video about the Persian garden
See also: UNESCO World Cultural/Natural Heritage Sites