It represents the addition of the three Imperial Tombs of the Qing Dynasty in Liaoning to the Ming tombs carved in 2000 and 2003. The Three Royal Tombs of the Qing Dynasty in Liaoning Province include Yongling Tomb, Mausoleum Fuling and Zhaoling Mausoleum, all built in the 17th century. Built for the founding emperors of the Qing dynasty and their ancestors, the tombs follow the principles of feng shui theory and Traditional Chinese Feng Shui. They are richly decorated with stone and carved statues and dragon motifs, illustrating the development of funeral architecture of the Qing dynasty. The three mausoleum complexes and their numerous edifices are a combination of traditions inherited from previous dynasties and new features of the Manchu civilization.
Accreditation year: 2000
Significant changes in boundaries : 2003, 2004
Area: 3,434,9399 ha
Buffer zone: 23,429,4399 ha
Nanjing City, Jiangsu Province (Tieu Linh Mausoleum); Changping District, Beijing (Ming Dynasty Tomb)
Outstanding global value
The Royal Tombs of the Ming and Qing dynasties were built between 1368 and 1915 AD in Beijing city, Hebei province, Hubei province, Jiangsu province and Liaoning province of China. These include the Xianling Tomb of the Ming Dynasty and the Eastern and Western Qing Tombs inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2000; The Xiaoling Tomb of the Ming Dynasty and the Tomb of the Ming Dynasty in Beijing were added to the inscription in 2003, and the Three Royal Tombs of Shenyang, Liaoning Province (Yongling Tomb, Fuling Tomb and Zhaoling Tomb , all of the Qing dynasty) added in 2004.
The Ming and Qing imperial tombs are set against the backdrop of terrain carefully selected according to the principles of feng shui (feng shui) and include many buildings of traditional architectural design and decoration. The tombs and buildings are arranged according to Chinese hierarchical rules and incorporate sacred ways with monuments and stone sculptures designed to accommodate the ongoing imperial ceremonies. take place as well as the movement of the souls of the dead. They illustrate the great importance of the Ming and Qing rulers of more than five centuries in the construction of the majestic mausoleum, which not only reflects shared beliefs about the afterlife, but also asserts power determination.
Tomb of the First Emperor of the Ming Dynasty, Xiaoling’s Tomb broke with the past and established the basic design for its followers in Beijing, and also the Xianling Tomb of the Ming Dynasty in Zhongxiang, Xiqing Tomb and Dong Thanh Tomb. The three Qing dynasty mausoleums in Liaoning province (Yongling mausoleum, Fuling mausoleum and Zhaoling mausoleum) were all built in the 17th century for the founding emperors of the Qing dynasty and their ancestors, integrating tradition system inherited from previous dynasties with new architecture. features of the Manchu civilization.
The Royal Tombs of the Ming and Qing dynasties are masterpieces of human creative genius thanks to their organic integration into nature and are unique evidence of cultural and architectural traditions. architecture of the last two feudal dynasties (Ming and Qing) in Chinese history between the 14th and 20th centuries. They are exquisite works that combine the architectural art of Han and Chinese civilizations. Manchuria. Their location, planning, and design both reflect the philosophical idea of harmony between man and nature according to Feng Shui principles and the rules of social hierarchy, while illustrating the importance of feng shui. Concepts of world and power were prevalent in the later period of ancient Chinese society.
Criterion (i) : The harmonious combination of distinctive architectural groups in a natural environment is selected to meet the criteria of feng shui (feng shui) that makes the Royal Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasty became the masterpiece of the creative genius of mankind.
Criterion (ii): The mausoleums represent a period of development where previous traditions were integrated into the forms of the Ming and Qing dynasties and became the basis for development. next development.
Criterion (iii): The royal mausoleum is an outstanding testimony to the cultural and architectural traditions that have dominated this part of the world for more than 500 years.
Criterion (iv): The architecture of the Royal Tomb blends perfectly with the natural environment, creating a unique cultural landscape complex. They are exceptional examples of ancient Chinese imperial tombs.
Criterion(vi) : The mausoleums of the Ming and Qing dynasties are brilliant illustrations of the beliefs, worldviews and feng shui theories prevailing in feudal China. They were once the burial places of illustrious figures and the site of major events that marked China’s history.
All attributes of outstanding universal value, including physical evidence, spiritual elements and historical and cultural information, are preserved. Boundaries of all property areas have been completed; main buildings and underground rooms are kept in good condition; the overall layout remains undisturbed; Historical buildings and monuments in protected areas have not been unduly tampered with or altered, and the integrity of the overall layout of the mausoleum during the Ming and Qing dynasties has been demonstrated. honestly. The topography and natural setting of the mausoleum, selected according to the principles of Feng Shui, is still maintained to this day.
The historical status of the buildings has been preserved up to the time when they were built or renovated during the Ming and Qing dynasties. Some of the lost buildings have been restored according to historical records and archaeological documents. The inscribed property with its context faithfully and clearly conveys the spirit and concept, ancient funeral system and artistic achievements associated with traditional culture.
Protection and management requirements
Royal mausoleums of the Ming and Qing dynasties were legally protected by central and local governments. On the basis of the implementation of the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Cultural Relics, the multi-layered heritage protection agencies and authorities have issued relevant protection regulations, and delineated the protected areas. protected areas and construction control areas (buffer zones). No project inside or outside the heritage site that affects the heritage values shall be implemented without the approval of the State cultural heritage management agency. Environmental capacity and construction activities are effectively controlled to prevent negative impacts from development. Heritage protection is reasonably and effectively balanced with tourism development and urban construction.
Based on the current system of management and protection, the relevant administrative organizations of the Ming and Qing imperial tombs will revise and improve the tomb management and conservation plans. According to the revised conservation planning and management, conservation work will be carried out more scientifically; construction activities in the buffer zone will be more tightly controlled, and cultural heritages as well as their landscapes and historical contexts will be protected and conserved in an integrated manner. Responsible agencies will enhance the daily care and maintenance of ancient architecture in accordance with the principle of minimal interference, including well-planned restoration. Furthermore, measures will be taken to improve the capacity building of relevant organizations, and to establish a coordination mechanism between heritage protection and management organizations and local authorities. By doing so, the protection and management of heritage sites will be enhanced with improved means of interpreting and promoting heritage values.
Coordinates of the Royal Tombs of the Ming and Qing dynasties
|ID||Name & Location||State Party||Coordinates||Property||Buffer Zone|
|1004-001||Xianling Tomb||China||N31 1 0.00
E112 39 0.00
|87.6 ha||226.4 ha|
|1004-002||Eastern Qing Tombs||China||N41 10 60.00
E117 37 60.00
|224 ha||7,800 ha|
|1004-003||Western Qing Tombs||China||N39 19 60.00
E115 13 0.00
|1.842 ha||4.758 ha|
|1004-004||Ming Tombs||China||N40 16 10.40
E116 14 40.60
|823 ha||8,100 ha|
|1004-005||Xiaoling Tomb including area from Treasure Mound to Shenlieshan Stele, including Plum Blossom Hill, and Big Golden Gate||China||N32 3 30.00
E118 51 7.00
|1004-006||Tomb of Chang Yuchun||China||N32 3 44.00
E118 49 54.00
|1004-007||Tomb of Qiu Cheng||China||N32 3 51.00
E118 49 59.00
|1004-008||Tomb of Wu Liang||China||N32 4 0.00
E118 49 51.00
|1004-009||Tomb of Wu Zhen||China||N32 4 5.00
E118 49 57.00
|1004-010||Tomb of Xu Da||China||N32 4 30.00
E118 50 6.00
|1004-011||Tomb of Li Wenzhong||China||N32 4 47.00
E118 50 23.00
|0.87 ha||180 ha|
|1004-012||Yongling Tomb of the Qing Dynasty||China||N41 20 37.00
E124 49 18.00
|236.59 ha||1,343.9399 ha|
|1004-013||Fuling Tomb of the Qing Dynasty||China||N41 49 34.00
E123 34 49.00
|53.86 ha||702.36 ha|
|1004-014||Zhaoling Tomb of the Qing Dynasty||China||N41 50 29.00
E123 25 4.00
|47.89 ha||318.74 ha|
Video about the Ming-Thanh Royal Tombs
See also: UNESCO World Cultural/Natural Heritage Sites