Sumatran Rainforest – World Natural Heritage in Indonesia

Sumatra is an island in western Indonesia. This is the largest island of Indonesia and the 6th largest island in the world with an area of ​​470,000 square kilometers.

English name: Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra
Location: Province of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Sumatra Utara (North Sumatra), Jambi, Sumatra Barat (West Sumatra), Sumatra Selatan (South Sumatra), Bengkulu, and Lampung on Sumatra island
Year of recognition: 2004
Criteria: (vii)(ix)(x)
Acreage: 2,595,124 hectares
Status: Threatened (from 2011 to present)

Tropical Rainforest Heritage in Sumatr . Islanda (Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra), Indonesia consists of three separate national parks: Gunung Leuser . National Park (Gunung Leuser National Park – GLNP); Kerinci Seblat National Park (Kerinci Seblat National Park – KSNP); Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park (Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park – BBSNP).

All three parks are located in the middle of the equator, far from each other, running along the Bukit Barisan mountain range, also known as the Andes of Sumatra. America).

Tropical rainforest heritage in Sumatra includes the highest volcano in Indonesia (Gunung Kerinci is 3,805m high), along with many other physical features of exceptional natural beauty, including: lakes at the craters Fire (Gunung Tujuh Lake is located at the highest elevation in Southeast Asia), vents, waterfalls, cave systems, steep rock formations…

Gunung Leuser National Park and Bukit Barisan National Park are located adjacent to the Indian Ocean, extending the range of topographic elevations in the Heritage area, from the highest mountain on the island of Sumatra to the sea level.

According to the altitude, there is an amazing diversity of ecosystems, from vegetation, high mountain forests, lowland tropical rainforests, coastal forests…

All 3 parks with an area of ​​2,595,124 ha, forming one of the largest protected areas in Southeast Asia; which holds great potential for the long-term conservation of Sumatra’s diverse biota, many of which are endangered.

1. Gunung Leuser . National Park

Gunung Leuser National Park (Gunung Leuser National Park – GLNP) has an area of ​​862,974 ha, located in the north of Sumatra island; border between the provinces of North Sumatra and Aceh.

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The park is named after Mount Leuser (3,119 m) in the Barisan Mountains.

Gunung Leuser National Park is about 150 km long, about 100 km wide, and is mostly mountainous with nearly inaccessible hilly terrain conditions.

About 40% of the park’s area, mainly in the northwest, is steep and the elevation is above 1,500 m. This area is considered the largest wilderness area in Southeast Asia. About 12% of the park’s area, in the southern lower half, lies 600 meters below sea level. Eleven peaks are over 2,700 m high. Mount Leuser (3,119 m) is the third highest peak in the Leuser Range. The highest peak is Mount Tanpa Nama (3,466 m), the second highest peak in Sumatra after Mount Kerinci (3,805 m).

The national park includes indigenous ecosystems from the coast to the high mountains covered with dense forests typical of tropical rain, including mangroves, swamp forests, lowland rainforests, and forests. moss, and to the forest under the volcano.

With different ecosystems. Gunung Leuser National Park is divided into different nature conservation areas, managed by a zoning system for the purposes of research, science, education, crop support, tourism and recreation.

Gunung Leuser National Park is one of only two remaining habitats for the Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii).

2. Kerinci Seblat . National Park

Kerinci Seblat National Park (Kerinci Seblat National Park – KSNP) has an area of ​​​​1,375,350ha, is the largest national park on Sumatra island, Indonesia, spanning 4 provinces: West Sumatra, Jambi, Bengkulu and South Sumatra.

Kerinci Seblat National Park covers a large part of the Barisan Mountains, which form the western spine of the island of Sumatra and include the highest peak in Sumatra, Mount Kerinci (3,805 m), one of more than five active volcanoes. in the national park. In the park there are hot springs, rapids, caves, beautiful waterfalls and the lake with the highest crater in Southeast Asia – Gunung Tujuh Lake.

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The Great Sumatran Fault that runs through the national park has attracted the interest of geologists.

The park is home to a diverse flora and fauna.

More than 4,000 plant species have been identified in the park area, including the world’s largest flower Rafflesia Arnoldi and the largest unbranched inflorescence Titan Arum (Amorphophallus titanum). ).

The fauna here includes Sumatran tigers and Kerinci Seblat National Park is one of the 12 most important reserves in the world for tiger conservation. There are an estimated 165-190 individuals here. In addition, it is also home to other large, medium and small cats such as cloud leopard / macan dahan (Neofelis nebulosa), marble cat / kucing batu (Pardofelis marmorata), leopard cat / kucing hutan (Prionailurus bengalensis). and the Asian yellow cat/kucing emas (Catopuma temminckii).

Kerinci Seblat National Park is home to a number of highly endangered species such as Sumatran pit, Sumatran elephant, Sunda cloud leopard, Malayan tapir, Malayan sun bear, Muntjak deer, Sumatran deer, Sumatran rhinoceros.

It is the habitat of more than 370 bird species, of which 17 of the 20 bird species are endemic to Sumatra.

3. Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park

Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park (Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park – BBSNP) has an area of ​​356,800 ha, located along the Bukit Barisan mountain range, south of Sumatra island, spanning 3 provinces: Lampung, Bengkulu and South Sumatra.

Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park is only 45 km wide but 350 km long. The northern part is mountainous with the highest point being Gunung Pulung (1,964 m), while the southern part is the peninsula.

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The park is covered by montane forest, lowland rainforest, coastal forest and mangrove forest.

Plant species in the park include Nipa palm, Casuarina equisetifolia, Anisoptera curtisii and Gonystylus bancanus, as well as Sonneratia, Pandanus, Shorea and Dipterocarpus mangrove species. Large flower species in the park include Rafflesia arnoldii, Amorphophallus decus-silvae, Amorphophallus titanum and the world’s largest orchid Grammatophyllum speciosum.

sumatra rainforest - world natural heritage in indonesia

The park is home to many endangered and threatened species, including: Sumatran Elephants (about 500 animals); Sumatran striped rabbit, Sumatran rhinoceros. In the park there are also about 40 Sumatran tigers, tapirs, sun bears, rat deer, Malayan tapirs, Siamang gibbons, Surili Sumatra black langurs, sun bears and rat deer. There are more than 300 species of birds in the park, such as the Sumatran cuckoo which is an endangered species.

Map of the Rainforest in Sumatra

Video of the Rainforest on the island of Sumatra

UNESCO World Cultural/Natural Heritage Sites

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