Tusi sites – World Cultural Heritage in China

Located in the mountainous region of southwestern China, the site includes the remains of several tribal territories whose chiefs were appointed by the central government as ‘Tusi’ (Turkey), who ruled hereditary rule from the 13th to the beginning of the 20th century. The Tusi system arose from dynastic systems of government of ethnic minorities dating back to the 3rd century BC. Its purpose was to unify the national administration, while allowing ethnic minorities to retain their customs and way of life. The sites of Laosicheng, Tangya and Hailongtun Fortress that make up the site are exceptional evidence of this form of governance, which dates back to the Yuan and Ming Chinese civilizations.

Accreditation year: 2015
Criteria: (ii)(iii)
Area: 781.28 hectares
Buffer zone: 3,125.33 ha

Outstanding global value

Distributed around the mountainous areas of southwestern China are the remains of tribal territories whose leaders were appointed by the central government as ‘Tusi’, hereditary rulers of the their region from the 13th to the beginning of the 20th century. This administrative system aimed to unify the national administration while allowing the ethnic minorities to retain their customs and way of life. . The three sites Laosicheng, Tangya and Hailongtun Fort combine into a serial asset to represent this governance system. The archaeological sites and remains of the Laosicheng Tusi Pan and Hailongtun Fort represent the highest ranked Tusi areas; The Memorial Arch and monuments of the Administrative Area, boundary walls, drainage ditches and tombs at the Tangya Tusi Domain represent the domain of a Tusi of lower rank.

READ MORE:  En Khu - World Cultural Heritage in China

Criterion (ii): The Tusi sites of Laosicheng, Tangya, and Hailongtun Fortress clearly demonstrate the exchange of human values ​​between the local ethnic cultures of Southwest China and the national identity established expressed through the structures of central government.

Criterion (iii): The sites of Lao Sicheng, Tangya, and Hailongtun Fortress are evidence of the Tusi administration system in Southwest China and thus exceptional evidence that this form of governance originated in the earlier ethnic minority management systems in China, and to Chinese civilization during the Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties.


The Heritage contains all the elements needed to manifest its Outstanding Universal Value and is sized to ensure the full expression of the characteristics and processes that convey the heritage’s meaning. Later career classes overlaid parts of the Tusi period still in Laosicheng and Hailongtun but there is enough evidence to demonstrate Outstanding Universal Value. Parts of the property at Hailongtun and Tangya are susceptible to vegetation growth. The property is susceptible to erosion from the impact of heavy rains and can become vulnerable to pressure due to visitor numbers and the development of tourism infrastructure.


The authenticity of the material remains in the three constituent parts of the property in terms of function, form and layout, materials and construction style, and retained location and context. The authenticity of the spirit and tradition is very high in Laosicheng due to the presence of Tujia minority groups in the property area.

Protection and management requirements

Property components are designated as Cultural Heritage with priority for State protection under the Law on Protection of Cultural Relics 1982, as amended in 2007. They are also protected under relevant provincial laws. The Laosicheng and Tangya Tusi sites are within the designated Provincial/National Scenic Area and are protected by the Scenic Area Regulations 2006. The property area and the buffer zone are protected under the regulations. Regulations related to Protected Areas and Construction Control Areas of the State’s Priority Protected Cultural Heritage.

READ MORE:  Getbol tidal flats – World Cultural Heritage in Korea

The management of the three components is coordinated at the provincial level under the Administration of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage (SACH) by a steering group established under the General Agreement on the Protection and Management of Heritage Sites. Tusi area. This group includes representatives of the provinces of Hunan, Hubei and Guizhou where constituent parts of the property are located. Administration offices in each component concerned through their respective county government and the People’s Government and Autonomous District with the People’s Government of their relevant provincial government. The steering group, led by the Cultural Heritage Bureau of Hunan Province, aims to establish common standards for property management including joint research projects, meetings and training courses for staff.

Conservation and Management Plans have been prepared for each component of the property for the period 2013-2030 including visitor management, presentation and monitoring of disaster related elements. Management systems and plans will be strengthened to ensure overall control of tourism projects in order to maintain Outstanding Universal Value.

Map of Tho Ty Sites

Laosicheng Tusi Region https://goo.gl/maps/T4NPx1d6VKG7fEW29
Tangya Tusi domain area https://goo.gl/maps/qXH2dPg6VurRWhM36
Location of Hailongtun Tusi Fortress https://goo.gl/maps/mC78CZEC6gwzd7T56

Videos of Turkish places


See also: UNESCO World Cultural/Natural Heritage Sites

Increase Height Blog
Enable registration in settings - general